Can SSH work between a Linux server and a Windows client when the Window's machine has inbound port 22 traffic blocked?
Yes. Some VPN tunnels initiated on a Windows machine block inbound port 22 traffic (but not all). Regardless of whether a firewall or VPN tunnel prevents inbound connections over port 22 to a Windows machine, you can make establish an SSH connection over port 22 from a Windows machine.
The destination server of an SSH request must listen on port 22. The source port of SSH requests will not be 22. To initiate an SSH connection, the egress direction of port 22 must not be blocked by intermediate security configurations. The ingress ports to the Windows machine over port 22 can be blocked, and you will still be functionally permitted to connect via SSH from the Windows machine (e.g., with Putty).