How To Install Linux / How To Install Ubuntu Server 16
Note: The settings in the directions below are for a typical U.S. user who wants a basic Ubuntu server without strong security. You do not have to follow the directions exactly. The directions can apply to different installation target mediums (e.g., a physical server or a virtual server). The directions are great for installing Ubuntu on a virtual instance hosted by Oracle VirtualBox running on a laptop that has Windows Professional 7 (step #1-3). You may not want to put anything sensitive on such a server. The directions are almost step-by-step for initial configuration of Ubuntu that would be good for testing things and learning. It would not take too much deviation from the steps below to have a production-ready Linux server.
Step #1. The first step is to either
- boot a physical server to the CD/DVD-ROM (e.g., an .iso on a DVD that is in the drive), or
- boot a physical server to a USB stick (e.g., a USB stick with bootable installation media for Ubuntu should be inserted into the computer before the computer is turned on), or
- start Oracle VirtualBox and boot to an .iso file that was downloaded to a Windows desktop and mounted as a drive, with a drive letter. One example of such an .iso is linked here. Various applications can allow you to temporarily mount an .iso to a drive letter.
Step #2. Follow these directions:
a) Choose the language you want and press enter.
b) Choose Install Ubuntu Server and press enter.
c) Choose "English" and press enter.
d) Chose "United States" and press enter.
e) Choose "No" to the question about detecting a keyboard.
f) Choose "English (US)" and press enter
g) Choose "English (US)" and press enter
Don't be surprised if you just see purple for a minute. This next process may take 10 minutes.
h) Enter a hostname for this server. Then choose "Continue."
i) Enter a full name for the user.
j) Enter a user name.
k) Enter a password.
l) For "Encrypt hard drive" choose "No." (It would be more secure to do it. I'm suggesting "No" because I believe most people following these directions are using Oracle VirtualBox and want something to run on a laptop reasonably quickly.)
m) You can change the time zone. More than likely you should just choose "Yes" and press enter.
n) For "Partition disks" choose "Guided - use entire disk and set up LVM" (It would be more secure to choose the option with encrypted LMV. I'm suggesting a different option because I believe most people following these directions will be installing Ubuntu Desktop on their Oracle VirtualBox. These users want something to run on a laptop reasonably quickly and will not put sensitive data on their Ubuntu server.)
o) Choose the default option for the "Select disk to partition."
p) For the "Write changes to disks..." prompt, choose "Yes" and press enter.
q) At the "Amount of volume group to use..." change if desired. Otherwise choose "Next" and press enter.
r) At the "Write changes to disks?" prompt, choose "Yes" and press enter.
This portion may take the installer several minutes to complete.
s) For the "Configure the package manager" leave it blank. Press tab to highlight "Continue." Press Enter.
t) For the prompt about managing upgrades, choose "Install security updates automatically."
u) For the "Software selection" prompt, leave "standard system utilities" unless you know you want something else. Then choose "Continue." The installer may take several minutes to complete this section.
v) For the "Install the GRUB boot loader..." prompt, choose "Yes" and press "Enter."
w) When you see "Finish the installation" go to "Devices" in Oracle VirtualBox. Then go to "Optical Devices" and uncheck the drive letter that had the mounted media. Then in the Ubuntu menu, choose "Continue."
x) Now you can use Ubuntu.