How Do I Create a .ppk File from a .pem File (e.g., to Use a Key Pair to Log into AWS Instances)?

Problem scenario
You want to use AWS.  You want to create Linux instances and connect to them.  You do not know how to use the key pair that EC-2 Linux machines use.

Solution
1.  Download puttygen.  If you have a 32 bit version of Windows, use this link.  If you have a 64 bit version of Windows, use this file.

2.  It does not need to be installed.  Just run it by double-clicking it.  

3.  In PuTTY Key Generator, go to File -> Load private key.  Then find the .pem file that was created.

4.  Enter a Key Passphrase in the field for "Key passphrase" and "Confirm passphrase."

5.  Click "Save private key."

6.  Now you have a .ppk file.  Use it in Putty (e.g., Connection -> SSH -> Auth, Private key file for authentication -> find the file created in step #6).

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