What is a Type 1 or Type 2 Company?

Problem scenario
You have heard about type 1 and type 2 companies. What are the differences?

We think that they are modes rather than types.

Gartner uses a word called “bimodal” to describe different patterns in the I.T. industry. Mode 1 refers to highly regulated environments whereas mode 2 refers to experimental, bleeding-edge environments. Thus a financial institution with private records would be an example of a mode 1 business.

Is the Term “Threadjacking” a Netiquette or Cybersecurity Issue?

Problem scenario
You have heard the term “threadjacking” in different contexts. What does it mean?

The word “threadjack” can have different meanings. It can be a netiquette issue, a cybersecurity issue, or both.

Threadjacking can refer to the practice of responding to an email thread or website posting to change the topic. These type of threadjackings have no security implication.

What Do the Terms Upstream and Downstream Mean in I.T.?

What do the terms upstream and downstream mean in I.T.?

If a project B is downstream from project A, project B has evolved from project A. In the genealogy of software/code/projects, project A is said to be upstream to project B if project A is an ancestor of project B. Project D is said to be downstream to project C if project D is a descendant of project B.

What is MEV?

What does MEV stand for in the context of cryptocurrency?

MEV means Maximal Extractable Value; it used to mean “Miner Extractable Value” according to Coindesk.com. Cryptocurrency miners solve problems and receive a reward for doing so.

If a miner is able to successfully add a block to the blockchain, they will receive … bitcoins as a reward.

What is MATIC in cryptocurrency?

What is MATIC in the context of cryptocurrency?

MATIC is Polygon’s native cryptocurrency token.

Before the project changed its name in February 2021, Polygon was known as Matic network.


MATIC is the currency of Polygon that enables users to interact with tens of thousands of dApps involved in our ecosystem. It is also used to secure the network by staking.

What is Doxing?

Question scenario
You have read about doxing or doxxing. What does it mean?

Doxing is the act of publicizing via the internet previously cloaked data about an individual or an organization. It is the unmasking of a formerly anonymous person to identify the target with an embarassing fact or allegation. Controversially connecting a person to something humiliating on a website is doxing.

Should You Save Old I.T. Certification Study Guides?

Given the obsolescence of information technology topics, should you hold on to study guides and books for years later as an investment?

Possibly. Sometimes one book that was published in 2010 can list for over $1,000. This book is RHCSA/RHCE Red Hat Linux Certification Study Guide (Exams EX200 & EX300) 6th (sixth) edition Text Only Paperback by Michael Jang.