What Does It Mean to Throttle a Hard Disk?

Problem scenario
You have read about disk throttling. What does it do?

Disk throttling is the limiting of I/O activity. Files are often downloaded at an even rate over the network. Batches of writes can happen while throttling read operations. This can allow for interruptions from other OS processes without excessive latency and a consistent user experience. A server's performance can be improved by putting a cap on disk input/output operations. The throttling algorithm is not trivial. A benefit of disk throttling is that logs fill up gradually (rather than suddenly). For experimental or specialized disk use cases, disk throttling can be turned off intentionally.

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