To see if Ansible can run commands with sudo without being prompted, you want to run a test.
You want to see if sudo works for certain on your Linux server. But you do not want to destroy anything or change any files. What should you do for a test that would tell you if sudo is working or not?
Run a command such as this:
sudo ls /root
The above would not ordinarily work for a regular Linux user.
If you have Ansible installed and configured with an inventory (e.g., /etc/ansible/hosts) file that is ready, you can run a command like this to see if you are prompted for a password when elevating to sudo:
ansible -m shell -a 'sudo ls /root' all
If you want to test a specific managed node, you could modify the command above by replacing "all" with the hostname of the managed node you want to test.